button - USA Old Glass

Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns

Textured Window Glass: USA Rolled Glass Pattern Guide [1890-2020]

Newest Art Glass - Florentine Glass & Double Chipped Glass.
Americas 'Newest Art Glass!'

As the name implies, Figured Rolled Glass is an architectural glass having a figured or patterned surface impressed by rollers during the process of manufacture.  Often called ‘art glass’, ‘frosted glass’, ‘privacy glass’ or ‘obscured glass’.  The various American patterns in which this glass has been manufactured are documented in this article and they range from simple finishes to elaborate designs, giving a variety of effects.  Today this glass is almost universally used where both daylight and privacy are required but in the past, these glasses added texture and colour to leaded light windows.  The textured surface obscures the vision without impairing the transmission of daylight.  

 

Table of Contents

Introduction

This article examines Textured Glass Patterns from the United States, originally a part of our main article “History of Pattern Window Glass”, an article documenting the evolution of figured rolled glass and the printed glass patterns.

Traditional Victorian window glass patterns are also documented in our article  Etched, Enamelled and Brilliant Cut Glass Designs.

 

Following are a lot of images galleries that will ‘lazy load’ as you scroll down. Click them for larger images presented as a slideshow.

Hit ‘Control+F’ on your keyboard to search for keywords.

Sharing this information

We do not sell old glass, we undertook this research ‘for the public record’ and to ensure the history of these interesting glasses was open to anybody with an interest. Please include a link to this article if sharing it or posting elsewhere, either in part or full; It really did take us a lot of work to get this far and it is still regularly being updated or amended as new information is unearthed.

Any further information or glass samples you might have, that help to complete the collection, are most welcome; please email Simon.  

During the 1890’s the race to develop figured rolled glass, a sheet glass with an imprinted ornamental surface, was happening in many glassworks around the world.  Ultimately the double rolled design of Chance Brothers England, which was registered in 1890, won out to became the dominant process.

THE BONTA PLATE GLASS COMPANY, OF WEST VIRGINIA.

Bonta Plate Glass registered this design in 1894 for a table rolled patterned glass machine.  However a patent registration is not proof of a successful manufacturing process or that any production ever occurred.  By 1887 The Glasgow Plate Glass Company had perfected table rolled glass production, and many of the early patterns shown in the 1894 catalog (below) are confirmed to be Glasgow designs. Chance Brothers finally acquired the Glasgow firm in 1907/8.

Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 1“My invention relates to certain improvements in machinery for the manufacture of sheets of glass, and is more especially adapted for the production of sheets provided on one side with an embossed or ornamental surface, the object of the invention being to construct machines of this character which will accomplish its work in an effective and rapid manner, the speed of the operation being such that sheets of the largest size may be operated upon before any portion of the glass has time to cool or set to such an extent as will prevent its being successfully operated upon by the engraved or embossed rolling surface. “

Early Patterened Glass in America

Glue Chipped Glass

A pattern is created by applying hot animal glue to a sandblasted surface of sheet glass.  As the glue dries, and contracts, it pulls flakes of glass off the surface in a random fashion. It has been used since the late 1800s, clear or tinted. 

Double Chipped – When the sheet is recoated with glue and a second chipping performed, the sandblast lines disappear entirely.

Using a stencil, many shop signs or decorative geometric patterns were created this way.

Prismatic Glass

Prism Glass is an architectural glass which bends and projects light to illuminate areas far from windows, this is known as anidolic lighting.

prism glass drawingPrism glass was mostly used in commercial and public buildings in the first quarter of the 20th century.  Pavement lights also used prism glass to light rooms set below ground level.  The basic principle still lives on to this day with scientifically designed patterns that focus light into our rooms. Following the adoption of electric lighting, prism glass was no longer a key marketing tool and was dropped from common usage.

Pressed glass quarries and slates as well as embossed glass tiles and pavement lights also featured ornate textured designs, but this article relates only to obscured glass that was produced in sheet sizes. 

US Patents: Prism Glass

Thomas and William Farmiloe Patent 'Oceanic'Imported European Sheet Glass Designs

Before America started proper domestic production of textured rolled plate glass some rolled patterned glasses were being imported from Britain  Early US glass producers licensed European designs, or simply patented a slight variation of existing popular patterns.

It is also quite probable that other European glass designs have been sold in America, before a series of tax rises in 1860, 1890 and finally the 1920s, that effectively stopped sheet glass importation. 

See our article on European Glass Designs for many more figured glass patterns.

1894 European Rolled Glass Patterns

Muranese & Florentine Pattern Glass

The Muranese ‘daisy’ type of floral pattern was the most popular of all the Victorian patterned glasses and the term ‘muranese glass’ became common usage to include all of the fancy glass designs.

Muranese rolled figured glass was produced by both Pilkington’s and Chance’s in every colour with a choice of small, medium and large patterns. 

Origins of the glass pattern name “Muranese’

The registered design for what later was named ‘muranese’, can be traced back to Brogan & Malloch at the Glasgow Plate Glass Co. based on Murano Street in Glasgow.  Murano St is located in an area of Scotland often referred to as  “The Venice Of The North” due to the number of canals in the area, and so Murano St most likely took it’s name from the famous glass producing Venetian island for this reason.  

Florentine Glass Pattern

A similar pattern is ‘Florentine’ glass, also known as ‘Radiant’, from the USA that can be recognised by areas of banding within a less dense floral cluster.  Yet another variation has a defined circle at the centre of each flower.  It would seem likely that the original Florentine glass design was by Mississippi Glass, circa 1896. 

“Intermediate between the rough “rolled” and the “polished” plate-glass we have a variety of glasses in which the appearance of the rolled surface is hidden or disguised to a greater or lesser extent by the application of a pattern that is impressed upon the glass during the rolling process; thus we have rolled plate having a ribbed or lozenge-patterned surface, or the well-known variety of “figured rolled” plate, sometimes known as “Muranese,” whose elaborate and deeply-imprinted patterns give a very brilliant effect.” 

Early American Figured Glass Patents

1893 pattern for window glass1893.  Charles Apple, Washington, Pennsylvania.

PATTERN FOB WINDOW GLASS. No. 22,982. Patented Dec. 26, 

My new design is to be used on heavy plate or window glass, or cathedral glass as it is known to the trade. That variety of plate glass is designed particularly for use in churches and elsewhere, where a soft and mellow light is to be obtained. Plate glass ornamented after my design is Well adapted for these uses, since a large proportion of any direct sun rays passing through the same are intercepted and the effects of lights and shadows thereby produced are very beautiful.

The principal feature of my new design consists in a raised figure A, having three irregular facets arranged on the entire surface of the glass.

In the drawings these figures are arranged irregularly, without any attempt to conform to any particular design or conformation. Each raised figure A, has three facets, as shown particularly in Fig. 3. The facet a, is triangular in shape and extends out from the surface of the glass at a slight angle, and converges to the apex b. The facets c, and d, are also triangular but are of smaller size than the facet a, and extend out from the surface of the glass at a greater angle than the facet a, converging also to the apex b. The facets c and d, are of the same size and have the same angle.

1906 USA glass pattern1906 Niklas Franzen Walton, Pennsylvania.

The 

Brownsville Plate Gass Company

KENSINGTON, PENNSYLVANIA USA

1894 USA Patent 'Arabesque'Application filed June 21, 1894. Serial No. 515,313. Term of patent ‘7 years.  Charles. W. CUDDON

This pattern was named Arabesque and produced by Swindell Brothers, Baltimore.

The design consists essentially of plumes grouped so as to cover thickly the surface of the glass. These plumes are so bent and arranged that they form substantially a unit square, which may indefinitely be repeated, until a sheet of glass of any desired size is closely decorated.

In order to give a uniform brilliancy to decorated sheet glass, it is necessary that the interstices between the portions of the pattern, be as few and small as possible. For this reason the plumes are turned in various directions, coiled or made straight, and certain of the plumes have vanes only on one side of the quill.

The vanes themselves are in raised relief and to secure the most brilliant effects the height of a vane should be about half of the Width of the base. It is essential that the height of the vane should be from a thirty-second to a sixteenth of an inch.

 

Western Glass Company 

 

Holly glass pattern1910 Clement Jungers, Illinois

‘The design in question is characterised in that it has a series of star shaped whirls so spaced apart that their tips approach closely to each other and between these whirls are sprays of holly, these sprays being desirably upon stippled or roughened background.’

The pattern was named Holly and produced by Western Glass Company.

Pennsylvania
Wire Glass Co.

 

1906 - Shuman Pennsylvania glass - Cobweb 1912 - Shuman Pennsylvania1906 Cobweb glass design was patented by Shuman.  In 1912 a similar pattern was registered by Shuman.

Marietta Glass Company 

Redkey, Indiana.  (1890-1925)

1896 - USA Oceanic pattern glassDesign No. 26,311, dated November 17, 1896. Serial No. 605,821. Term of patent ‘7 years .

A new and original Design for Sheet plate Glass, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawing, which shows in plan a sheet of glass embodying the design.

The design consists in a sheet or plate of glass having thereon a pattern substantially as herein shown and described.

 

Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 2 Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 3 Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 4

Edward Walsh & The Mississippi Glass Company

St. Louis, Missouri Est 1876 

1900 & 1901: Edward Walsh patented several sheet-glass designs that incorporated previously patented patterns, which had presumably expired.  His new patents carried the old designs on one face and fluted corrugations on the other, which presumably made this sheet-glass far more difficult to cut.

A sheet of glass ornamented and configured according to my new and original design has an appearance to the observer different from either of the designs on the opposite faces thereof. When the corrugated surface is nearest the observer, the regularity of the serpentine and swirling ribs on the reverse side is destroyed by refraction, so that the convexes of the corrugations are traversed by lights and shades at about right angles to the axes thereof, while in the concaves of the corrugations the serpentine and swirling design on the reverse side is better defined.

1887 – Alfred Rowe assignor to Mississippi Glass Co.

1897 – “Charles C. Hartung of St Louis Missouri, assignor to Edward Walsh Jr of same place.”

1909 – Henry J. Gilbert, Assignor to Mississippi Glass Company

European / US Glass Designs

 

Figured No.1‘ is British pattern ‘Diaper‘.

Figured No.2‘ is ‘Chance Bros. Pattern D‘ 

Figured No.3 is Chance Bros. Pattern F

Oceanic was a British design by T. & W. Farmiloe and also printed by Pilkington Bros & Saint-Gobain.

Americas Rolled Glass Makers

 

Mississippi Glass Company

St Louis, Missouri (1876-197?)

1906 - Mississippi Figured Glass
1906 Mississippi Glass Co Figured Rolled Glass
Mississippi Glass Company formed in 1876, St Louis, Missouri, on the Mississippi River. During 1884 production moved away from bottles and into “rough & ribbed coloured cathedral glass sheets” and by 1887 the firm exclusively made plate glass.  Shortly afterwards ornamental glass patterns were added including Ondoyant, Florentine, Maze, and Syenite and by the end of the century ‘Fireproof approved’ wired glass was added.  By 1933, Mississippi Glass had plants in St. Louis, Morgantown, Floreffe, Port Allegeny, Washington, Streator, Illinois, and Fullerton, California.  The original St. Louis, Missouri firm remained in business to at least the early 1970s.
Mississippi Glass c1900
Circa 1900 Mississippi Rolled Glass Designs 

Swindell Brothers Glassworks BaltimoreSwindell Brothers, Baltimore Window Glass

Baltimore, Maryland (1879-1959)

The Swindell Brothers opened their Crystal Glass Works c.1880 to produce window glass.  The window glass plant was “totally destroyed” by fire on May 9. 1901. and was not rebuilt.

 

1900 – Swindell Brothers Range

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

Pittsburgh Pennsylvania (1883 – 1968)

The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (PPG) began as the New York City Plate Glass Company when it was founded in 1880 by Captain John B. Ford, an entrepreneur, and John Pitcairn, a railroad official. The first plant was located northeast of Pittsburgh on the Allegheny River in Creighton, Pennsylvania. By 1883 the company headquarters were moved to Pittsburgh, and the plants were producing 20 million square feet of plate glass per year. Pittsburgh Plate Glass attained the size of the historic French glass makers Saint-Gobain in only six years.  

Pitcairn died in 1916, having built PPG over a 33-year period into the largest plate glass manufacturer in the United States as well as diversifying its product line and developing sources of raw material.

1968 the company changed its name to PPG Industries, Inc.

1901 – Pittsburgh P.G.C. Range

The National Glass Distributors Association

1915 USA Glass Patterns

“The prime objective of figured glass is to supply an obscure translucent glazing material with attractive pattern of depth and character, and at the same time it must be essentially prismatic so as to admit, diffuse and distribute the light.”

1914 Pressed Prism Plate Glass Company

West Virginia (1902 – 1953)

Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 5Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 6 

Other Early Patterns and Alternate Names

Hires, Turner Glass Co.

626 Arch Street, Philadelphia.  (1863- at least 1956 )

 

1919 – Hires, Turner Glass Co. Range

1920s onwards Textured Glass Patterns

Frosted Glass Reduces Glare

Frosted Figured Rolled Glass for Glare Reduction

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 1923

Ground – Chipped – Double Chipped       Florentine – Syenite – Maze       Romanesque – Ondoyant – Rippled

Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 1923.

  •  

Mississippi Glass Company Brochures

193os Magnalite Prism Glass Samples

Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 7 Old Textured Window Glass ID Guide | American Art Glass Patterns 8

Blue Ridge Glass Corporation

Kingsport Tennessee.  1930-1957

 

Saint Gobain, renowned French glassmakers, entered the America market in 1958 by combining the ‘American Window Glass Company’ of Pittsburgh and the ‘Blue Ridge Glass Corporation’ of Kingsport.

1932 – Libbey Owens Ford Glass Co and Blue Ridge Glass Corp.

Highland Western Glass Company

Washington, Pennsylvania

 Highland – Western Glass Co. was absorbed by the Mississippi Glass Co

1930s – Highland Western Glass Company

1945 & 1946 – Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

Southwestern Sheet Glass Company
Okmulgee, Oklahoma (1919 – ) 

‘Southwestern Sheet Glass products are quiute versatile and allow for selection of patterns both wired and unwired, truely befitting a particular style of architecture’

1949 – Glass Rolled, Figured, and Wire Glass

 Saint Gobain America

Saint Gobain, renowned French glassmakers since 1665, entered the America market in 1958 by purchasing and combining the ‘American Window Glass Company’ of Pittsburgh and the ‘Blue Ridge Glass Corporation’ of Kingsport.

History of Saint Gobain

Saint Gobain America Designs ‘Pre 1964’

& 1960 Brochure

Pilkington North America

In 1986, The Libbey-Owens-Ford Company sold its glass business and the Libbey Owens-Ford name to Pilkington Plc. In 2000 Libbey Owens-Ford changed its name to Pilkington North America, Inc.  In 2006, the Nippon Sheet Glass Group acquired Pilkington plc. becoming Pilkington NSG North America.

2013 – Pilkington NSG North America

Pilkington NSG North America added these patterns to expand their standard decorative glass range “Morisco”, “Austral”. “Rayado”, “Sparkle”, “Yacare”.  Full brochure: 2013 Pilkington Textured Glass Brochure

Pilkington Glass North America: Special Editions

Current Glass Patterns

 

2020 Pilkington Decorative Glass

“Whether it’s for privacy, pure style or to allow more light into internal rooms, Pilkington Texture Glass gives you a stylish range of attractive options.  If you need replacement glass to match an existing design, don’t worry, we have a number of well-established designs that are still available.”

Visit Pilkington Glass – Online Pattern Visualiser

Visit Pilkington.com

Benefits

Pilkington Texture (Patterned) Glass offers privacy and style throughout the home:

  • Provide different degrees of obscuration for privacy or decoration purposes.
  • Extensive range of designs and finishes.
  • Available with wired glass, and therefore suitable for glazing resistant to fire.
  • Available in toughened and laminated forms (depending on design) for safety and security performance.
  • Can be single glazed or incorporated in an Insulating Glass Unit for additional properties.
  • Available in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses (4, 6, 8 and 10 mm) depending on design.

None of the Pilkington patterns are designed to have an orientation (an upside) but care needs to be taken with adjacent panes that the pattern direction is maintained. There is a linear nature to Pilkington Texture Glass Warwick™ and so householders should be aware that there could be aesthetic implications when choosing this design. Also, for the glass supplier, the result may be that this pattern is less accommodating when cutting and may result in a greater proportion of waste from the original glass plate.

2020 Pilkington Oriel Collection – Etched Glazing.

“This exciting range of stunning, high-end decorative etched glass designs offer excellent light transmission with various levels of privacy. The range is available in a variety of contemporary and traditional designs, each with a modern opaque appearance.”

Please Note: Etched glass can become almost clear when wet.

2020 Saint Gobain

Visit Saint Gobain Glass

Seraphic Glass: screen printed ceramic coatings

Seraphic Printed Glass

Art Glass and Other Suppliers

Wissmach Glass is produced in many tints and textures. From the USA but it is sold worldwide.

Wissmach Stained Glass Catalog

Wissmach Kiln Glass Catalog

Salvage Yards

 

Vintage Chicken Wire Glass

Olde Good Glass OGT has discovered a unique niche in the architectural salvage of industrial and antique window glass. These elements have become increasingly popular as our world has evolved into a society appreciating sustainable resources for the medium of design. We have stores in New York City, Scranton Pennsylvania and Los Angeles. USA. We ship worldwide. Please contact us for samples and more information.

http://www.oldegoodglass.com

Conclusion

 

“I have enjoyed the journey of research and discovery into these old patented window glass designs and the story of their manufacture, using techniques dating back over 130 years.  It is rewarding to help shed some light onto this little documented part of our architectural heritage, a part of history that we literally see the world through everyday.   I only hope that I have managed to convey the subject to you, the reader, in an accurate, interesting and enjoyable format. 

Thanks to the libraries and private collectors that have digitised and shared their old books with the world, this article would have been much shorter and far less informative without their contributions.”       Simon Free, 2020.

1880 – Wm. King & Bro. : importers of French window and picture glass

1895 – Chipped, ground, enameled and embossed glass in all varieties.
by Rawson & Evans (Chicago, Ill.)

1896 – Wire glass, its uses and application as a fire retardent / made by the Mississippi Glass Company

1900 – Price list of rough, ribbed, ground, enameled, colored, chipped, figured, rolled, etc., glass. by Swindell Brothers

1914 – International art glass catalogue 

1915 – Catalog of Pennsylvania “Solid” wire glass and glass without wire.
by Pennsylvania Wire Glass Co

1923 – Glass, paints, varnishes and brushes: their history, manufacture, and use
by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

1924 – “Revised” international art glass catalog domestic : showing designs of the highest grade art glass.
by Mound City Art Glass Company

1929 – Glass by Mississippi.
by Mississippi Glass Co. and Mississippi Wire Co.

1930 – Figured glass by Mississippi
by Mississippi Glass Company

1930 – Old beauty in new glass.  Tapestry Glass
by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

1933 – Glass by Mississippi.
by Mississippi Glass Co. and Mississippi Wire Co.

1933 – Glass and Paint Products of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

1933 – Flat glass: Flat drawn window glass, polished plate glass, safety glass, figured and wire glass
by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company

1935 – Pennvernon window glass.
by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

1935 – 52 designs to modernize Main street with glass.
by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co.

1937 – Plate glass
by Plate Glass Manufacturers of America

1937 – Invisible glass window units: a dramatic new merchandising force.
by Invisible Glass Company of America

1938 – Glass products of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company

1938 – Libbey Owens Ford glass.
by Libbey Owens Ford

1939 – Glass products.by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.

1941 – Glass designed for happiness.
by Libbey Owens Ford Glass Company

1941 -Libbey Owens Ford quality flat glass products.
by Libbey Owens Ford Glass Company

1945 – Planning ahead with glass for more enjoyable living.
by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company

1949 – Specify Mississippi Glass
by Mississippi Glass Co.

1949 – Glass Rolled, Figured, and Wire Glass
by Southwestern Sheet Glass Co.

 

1949 – “American” Glass
by American Window Glass Co.

1949 – Magnalite Diffusing glass
by J. Merrill Richards

1949 – Glass Data for the Architect
by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company

1950 – How to give your home glamour with glass.
by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.

1955 Glass : for residential, commercial use.
by Mississippi Glass Co.

1955 – Glass For Construction

1958 – Mississippi Glass for industrial, commercial, school, residential use, catalog no. 58-G
by Mississippi Glass Company

Period Window Restoration