sash style - types of sash window

Sash Style

Sash Styles | Types Of Sash Window

The counterbalanced vertically sliding wooden sash window started to take shape in 1670’s London, at about the same time as rapid improvements in glass quality.   By the turn of that century the double-hung sliding sash was introduced, although not widely adopted until the mid eighteenth century.  From that period onward the double hung sash remained popular, being adapted to suit varying architectural styles.   

Read More :  History Of The Sash Window

Describing sliding sash windows

Wooden sash windows are usually described by the number of glazing panes per sash.  6 over 1 would have 6 smaller panes of glass in the top sash and 1 larger pane in the bottom.

Basic Glazing Configurations

1 over 1 Victorian Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.
1 over 1 Sash Window
1 over 1 Victorian Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.
2 over 2 vertical configuration
1 over 1 Regency Terrace Sliding Sash Window.
2 over 2 Horizontal Glazing Pattern
3 over 3 Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.
3 over 3
Queen Ann Timber Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.
4 over 1 Queen Ann



Georgian Sash Windows

Windows from this period were almost exclusively sash-windows, consisting of multiple smaller panes of glass divided by wooden glazing bars (muntins).  Early Georgian windows had thick oak glazing bars, upto 38mm thick, but later thin, delicate bars carved from ‘deal’ (Baltic Pines) became as thin as 12mm. Glass manufacturing was expensive and limited to smaller panes of crown glass, the narrow astragal glazing bars allowed for larger window sashes. 

Internaly wainscot sashes were part of the contionous wall paneling (wainscot).  Wainscot sashes were usually accompanied by hinged wooded shutters, that could be shut and barred at night.

Georgian Sash Windows became known as a Colonial Windows in the British colonies. 

Georgian Period Sash Window 12 over 12
12 over 12
Georgian Period Sash Window 9 over 9
9 over 9 sashes
Georgian Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.
8 over 8
Georgian Sliding Sash Window. - 12 over 8
12 over 8

Victorian Sash Windows

The group of styles collectively referred to as Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles.  

Victorian Gothic revival sash windows incorporated curved horns, arched heads, intricate mouldings, lead-lights and latticework to adorned the sashes.  Windows were often grouped into impressive bays, offset with ornate stone reveals.  

Queen Anne revival homes were embellished with bay windows and oriels. Bottom window sashes had only a single pane of glass with the upper sash being multi-paned in a six over one configuration.  More elaborate windows featured sashes with stained glass in the upper portion.  

Late Victorian windows were simpler, typically with either single panes or two over two vertical split glazing pattern. Square or canted bay sash windows with stone sills became a common feature.


As well as housing stock the Victorians also constructed many of the civic heritage buildings that remain today;  Schools, libraries, museums, shopping arcades and town halls often feature the finest examples of Victorian craftsmanship and design in their sash windows. 

Shaped Top Sash

sash window 1over1 arched head  / swept head
Arched Head
Round Head Period Sash Window 2 over 2 glazing
Round Head Sash
sash window gothic arch head
Gothic Arch Head

Bent / Curved Timber Sash Windows.

Bowed Sash Window - 3 over 6
Curved Sash Window – with flat glass panes.
Bowed Sash Window 1 over 1
Curved / bent glass
False Bow Sash Window - Flat Glass, flat sash frames (not bow shaped).
Bowed Sash Window – Flat Glass, flat frames.

Marginal Glazing Bars

Margin light windows have a larger central pane flanked by narrow glass panes that enhance the variety and elegance of fenestration.  The marginal panes often incorporated coloured glass as a feature.  First introduces circa 1828 marginal patterns  remained popular, in various forms, until the end of the 19th century.

Double Hung Sliding Sash Window with marginal glazing pattern

Double Hung Sliding Sash Window with marginal glazing pattern

Arched Double Hung Sliding Sash Window with marginal glazing pattern

Castellated Pattern wooden sash-window
Castellated Pattern

Venetian windows

Tripartite windows comprise a large central light flanked by two smaller lights, a form that can be traced back to Roman architecture.  As this style became especially popular in Venice during the mid sixteenth century they are now commonly known as Venetian windows.  Wooden Venetian windows may feature stone, brick or timber-framed construction.

Venetian Window Variations

Eighteenth Century Palladian windows are stepped tripartite windows with a taller arched central light.  Also known as Serliana or Serlian Motif.

Medieval triptych windows have three pointed lights joined up in series.  The lights may be of equal size or the centre light may be taller, similar to the Palladian window.

Venetian Wooden Sash Window – with narrow mullions.

The sash cords in this style of Venetian window pass above the sidelights to reach the weight boxes on either side of the frame.  The side sashes are fixed in place and must be removed in order to replace the sash cords. 

Venetian windows with wide timber mullions (triple box sash) or masonry framing are treated as three individual windows.

venetian timber sash window - marginal lights
Marginal Bars – Narrow Mullion
venetian timber sash window - 2 over 2
Victorian – Narrow Mullion
palladian sash window
venetian timber sash window - Georgian Style
Georgian – Narrow Mullion
Timber Sash Window. Venetian Style. sash-window-group
Venetian – Masonry Framed
Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.
Venetian – Masonry Framed with Motif

Bay Windows

A bay or bow window protrudes beyond the straight brick-line of a building, increasing the natural light, views and the living space of a room.   Bay windows evolved from the flat tripartite Venetian style and may comprise a group of casement or sliding sash windows.  A house with a bay or oriel window was most likely built after 1894 when an amendment to the building act decreed that windows no longer need be flush with the exterior wall.  The word bay is believed to derive from the French word ‘baee’, which means opening or hole.

Canted bay windows (splayed bay) are those with a straight front and angled sides that became a particularly popular feature of middle-class Victorian terraced houses.

Square bay windows are rectangular with 90 degrees (square) corners.  Commonly seen on Edwardian period property.

Bow Windows are semi-circular or elliptical in plan. 

An oriel window is a style of bay window that does not reach to the ground. Instead oriel windows are usually supported by corbels or brackets.

Canted Bay Sash Window | Masonry Fame Construction

Double Hung Sliding Sash Window. painted glass
5 over 1 – Marginal Bars.
Period timber bay window - 1 over 1
1 over 1 Bay Window
Double Hung Queen Ann Sash Window.
4 over 1 Timber Queen Ann Sash Window
Queen Ann Sliding Sash Window.
6 over 1 – Queen Anne Style
Queen Ann Sash Window.
Queen Ann Style. 8 over 1
Bay0 Sliding Sash Windows
1 over 1 arched head bay sash windows

Canted Bay Sash Window | Timber Frame Construction

Vertical Sliding Sash Window.
Splayed Bay Sash Window 1 over 1.
Beorgian style bay -  Sliding Sash Window.
Georgian Style Bay Window
Castellated Glazing Pattern

Other Types – Timber Sash Windows.

Oriel window sash.
Oriel Window
Horizontal Sliding Sash - Yorkshire Sash Window.
Yorkshire Sash (Horizontal Slide)
Victorian Dormer Sash Window.
Dormer Sash Window
Triple hung sash window – usually appear in stairwells.
Sash Style 1
Feature meeting rails

Grouping Windows in Pairs.

Timber Sash Window.

Edwardian sash window castellated

Double Hung Sliding Sash Window.

Period Window Restoration