Sash Styles | Types Of Sash Window
The counterbalanced vertically sliding wooden sash window started to take shape in 1670’s London, at about the same time as rapid improvements in glass quality. By the turn of that century the double-hung sliding sash was introduced, although not widely adopted until the mid eighteenth century. From that period onward the double hung sash remained popular, being adapted to suit varying architectural styles.
Describing sliding sash windows
Wooden sash windows are usually described by the number of glazing panes per sash. 6 over 1 would have 6 smaller panes of glass in the top sash and 1 larger pane in the bottom.
Basic Glazing Configurations
Georgian Sash Windows
Windows from this period were almost exclusively sash-windows, consisting of multiple smaller panes of glass divided by thin, delicate wooden glazing bars. Glass manufacturing was expensive and limited to smaller panes of glass, the narrow astragal glazing bars allowed for larger window sashes. Georgian Sash Windows became known as a Colonial Windows in the British colonies.
Victorian Sash Windows
The group of styles collectively referred to as Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles.
Victorian Gothic revival sash windows incorporated curved horns, arched heads, intricate mouldings, lead-lights and latticework to adorned the sashes. Windows were often grouped into impressive bays, offset with ornate stone reveals.
Queen Anne revival homes were embellished with bay windows and oriels. Bottom window sashes had only a single pane of glass with the upper sash being multi-paned in a six over one configuration. More elaborate windows featured sashes with stained glass in the upper portion.
Late Victorian windows were simpler, typically with either single panes or two over two vertical split glazing pattern. Square or canted bay sash windows with stone sills became a common feature.
As well as housing stock the Victorians also constructed many of the civic heritage buildings that remain today; Schools, libraries, museums, shopping arcades and town halls often feature the finest examples of Victorian craftsmanship and design in their sash windows.
Shaped Top Sash
Bent / Curved Timber Sash Windows.
Marginal Glazing Bars
Margin light windows have a larger central pane flanked by narrow glass panes that enhance the variety and elegance of fenestration. The marginal panes often incorporated coloured glass as a feature. First introduces circa 1828 marginal patterns remained popular, in various forms, until the end of the 19th century.
Tripartite windows comprise a large central light flanked by two smaller lights, a form that can be traced back to Roman architecture. As this style became especially popular in Venice during the mid sixteenth century they are now commonly known as Venetian windows. Wooden Venetian windows may feature stone, brick or timber-framed construction.
Venetian Window Variations
Eighteenth Century Palladian windows are stepped tripartite windows with a taller arched central light. Also known as Serliana or Serlian Motif.
Medieval triptych windows have three pointed lights joined up in series. The lights may be of equal size or the centre light may be taller, similar to the Palladian window.
Venetian Wooden Sash Window – with narrow mullions.
The sash cords in this style of Venetian window pass above the sidelights to reach the weight boxes on either side of the frame. The side sashes are fixed in place and must be removed in order to replace the sash cords.
Venetian windows with wide timber mullions (triple box sash) or masonry framing are treated as three individual windows.
A bay or bow window protrudes beyond the straight brick-line of a building, increasing the natural light, views and the living space of a room. Bay windows evolved from the flat tripartite venetian style and may comprise a group of casement or sliding sash windows. The word bay is believed to derive from the French word ‘baee’, which means opening or hole.
Square bay windows are rectangular with 90 degree (square) corners
Canted bay windows (splayed bay) have angled corners.
Bow Windows are semi-circular or elliptical in plan.
An oriel window is a style of bay window that does not reach to the ground. Instead oriel windows are usually supported by corbels or brackets.